Lexicon of Materials - C

Our dictionary of materials consists of technical terms, which are explained in detail using easily understood language. Please click on a letter of your choice to reach the relevant material.
 

Carbon fiber reinforcement for equipment and parts to increase reliability and operational safety.

The Material

Moldings made from amorphous, coarse-grain carbon are used in thermal and electrolytic processes such as the production of aluminum, silicon metal, crude iron, ferrosilicon, and phosphorus.

The Properties

  • temperature resistant
  • electrically conductive
  • thermally conductive
  • wear resistant

The Manufacturing Process

Anthracite and other additives are bonded with coal-tar pitch to create a homogenous mass that is then molded into form and put through a thermal process called carbonization.

Carbon fiber-reinforced carbon, abbreviated CFRC or C/C, is a high strength, high temperature resistant, lightweight structural material.It consists of carbon fibers embedded in a carbon or graphite matrix.

Details on properties, manufacturing and typical applications of C/C can be found under 

SIGRABOND® Carbon fiber-reinforced carbon

The Material

CFRP is made of carbon fibers and matrix components. It is an indispensable material for sophisticated high-tech applications that depend on materials with high strength and stiffness that are as lightweight as possible.

The Properties

  • very strong and stiff
  • lightweight
  • highly fatigue-resistant
  • low thermal expansion
  • high level of energy absorption

The Manufacturing Process

CFRP components can be manufactured by laminating and pressing prepregs, as well as injection processes of textile fiber preforms, pultrusion, and filament winding processes. There are also specially-adapted extrusion and press processes for thermoplastic polymer systems.

The Material

The matrix components of this material are silicon carbide and elemental silicon. Carbon fibers are added for reinforcement. Silicon carbide gives the material a degree of hardness, while the carbon fibers add strength and fracture toughness.

The Properties

  • very strong and stiff
  • high fracture toughness
  • wear resistant
  • thermally stable and thermal shock resistant

The Manufacturing Process

C/SiC is manufactured through the infiltration of silicon into C/C in a multi-step process. The raw materials include carbon chopped fibers, fabrics, felts, and silicon and phenolic resin.

The Material

Carbon fibers are a modern high-performance material. They are used in applications where components need to be mechanically robust, but still lightweight – for example in the aerospace and automotive industries, as well as in wind energy technology and modern sports equipment.

The Properties

  • very strong and stiff
  • lightweight
  • electrically conductive
  • versatile processing options

The Manufacturing Process

Carbon fibers are manufactured from the polymer fiber polyacrylonitrile (PAN Precursor) using oxidation and carbonization processes. Depending on the specific application, the carbon fibers can be further processed directly as a fiber roving, woven or non-woven fabric, or as a resin-impregnated semi-finished product (prepregs).

Carbon occupies the sixth place in the periodic table of chemical elements.

The carbon family

Graphitization

Milestones in the history of carbon and graphite